Incontinence in Dogs
Drips dried: Don’t give up; your dog’s urinary incontinence can be cured.
Article by Mary Straus, published in the Whole Dog Journal, September 2006
As it turns out, incontinence, which is defined as involuntary urination, is quite common in dogs, especially spayed females, where approximately one in five dogs (20 percent) is affected. [Update: a retrospective study published in April 2013, found the incidence of spay incontinence to be just a little over 5 percent. The study also found no correlation between incontinence and the age of the dog at the time of spay. Larger dogs (over 33 lbs) were about 7 times more likely to develop incontinence after spaying than smaller dogs. See Evaluation of the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs: 566 cases (2003–2008) for more information.]
Estrogen responsive incontinence or hormonally responsive incontinence, commonly called spay incontinence, is the most frequent cause of involuntary urination in dogs. It can occur anywhere from immediately after spaying to ten years later, with the average being around three years.
Low estrogen levels and other factors can lead to a weak bladder sphincter, resulting in anything from small urine drips to complete emptying of the bladder, usually while sleeping or resting. Leaking can happen daily or just periodically. Large breed dogs are more commonly affected than small breeds, and German Shepherds, Boxers, Spaniels and Doberman Pinschers appear to be more at risk than other breeds.
A recent study showed that early spaying (before the first heat) reduced the chance of incontinence, from 18 percent to 9.7 percent in large breed dogs, but increased the severity when it occurred. It is possible that spaying midway between heat cycles may help prevent spay incontinence, but this is just speculation, as no studies have been done. Hormone-related incontinence can also affect neutered males, though much less commonly than females.
Incontinence can occur for many other reasons, including urinary tract infections, bladder stones, congenital structural defects (e.g., ectopic ureters), spinal cord disease, and excess water intake. Older dogs, overweight dogs, and dogs with neurological problems may develop a weak bladder sphincter. These causes of incontinence can affect dogs of both genders, whether intact or neutered.
When additional symptoms such as frequent urination, painful urination, trying to urinate without success, or blood in the urine are seen, then urinary tract infection (UTI) or stones (uroliths) are likely. Keep in mind that about 20% of UTIs will not show up on urinalysis alone, so it’s important to do a urine culture to rule out infection.
Neurological problems should be suspected when signs such as weakness in the rear, stumbling or incoordination are present. Ectopic ureters are the most common cause of incontinence in young female dogs (under a year); they are uncommon in males.
Most causes of incontinence other than weak bladder sphincter can be identified from a urinalysis and urine culture, but sometimes it is necessary to see a specialist. Additional tests that can be done to find the cause of incontinence include X-rays or ultrasound to look for bladder stones or structural defects, dye contrast studies, and exploratory surgery.
In addition to being a problem for the owner who has to clean up after a leaky dog, incontinence can be very distressing to dogs that are housebroken, and can also lead to urinary tract infections, vaginitis, and sometimes skin ulcers caused by urine scald and licking.
Incontinence should be suspected as a contributing factor in dogs with recurrent bladder or vaginal infections. Incontinence aids such as doggie diapers and pads to protect furniture and dogs beds are available, but it’s very important to keep the dog clean and to get the incontinence under control, if at all possible. Baby wipes can be used to keep the skin clean, and will also soothe irritation, as does aloe vera gel. Preparation H Medicated Wipes use a combination of witch hazel and aloe, which have natural antiseptic and soothing qualities (see the last item in Dr. Patrick’s Top Five Canine Holiday Gifts for more information). Use only those lotions that will not be a problem if the dog licks and ingests them. Never use anything with zinc, such as diaper rash ointment, which can be toxic if ingested.
In July 2011, the FDA approved a new drug, Incurin, that uses estriol (a form of estrogen) to treat spay incontinence in female dogs. Incurin is manufactured by Intervet, a division of Merck Animal Health. As of January 2012, the drug was not yet available in the U.S., though it is sold in the U.K., New Zealand, and some other countries. See FDA Approves First Drug to Treat Urinary Incontinence in Female Dogs for more information.
Spay incontinence can also be treated with estrogen supplements, usually in the form of DES (diethylstilbestrol), but estradiol, a more natural form of estrogen, can be used. Neutered males with hormonally-caused incontinence may respond to monthly testosterone injections, though these can also lead to urine marking and aggressive behavior.
Ectopic ureters, where the tubes leading from the kidney do not properly connect to the bladder, require surgical correction. A new surgery using collagen injections is now available for incontinence that does not respond to any other form of treatment.
Natural treatments are frequently helpful for incontinence, once more serious conditions have been ruled out. Herbs, acupuncture, chiropractic treatment, and homeopathic remedies have each helped many dogs. Feeding a homemade diet can also make a difference.
PPA must be given daily, usually two or three times a day, as its effect lasts only 8 to 12 hours. It can be used on an as-needed basis, for dogs who have only occasional problems with incontinence. Most dogs tolerate PPA without any problems, but side effects can include irritability, nervousness, panting, restlessness, rapid heartbeat, and excitability. PPA should not be given to dogs with high blood pressure or heart disease. PPA has been removed from over-the-counter human products due to a slightly increased risk of stroke, but this side effect is not a concern with dogs.
DES (diethylstilbestrol), a synthetic form of estrogen, can be used to treat spay incontinence. It is given daily for the first week, and then dosage is dropped to once or twice a week. It’s important when using this treatment to experiment and find the lowest possible dose that will work to control the incontinence, once it has been found to be effective. Estrogen supplements are considered relatively safe, but in rare cases they can cause bone marrow suppression leading to anemia that does not go away when the treatment is stopped. Higher doses and non-DES forms of estrogen are more likely to cause this effect. DES is readily available thru compounding pharmacies.
PPA can be combined with DES when needed to control difficult cases. Imipramine (Tofranil), a tricyclic antidepressant that causes urine retention in some patients, is also occasionally combined with PPA for dogs that do not respond to other medications.
A natural estrogen supplement called Genesis Resources Canine Incontinence Support is available for treating spay incontinence, as are ovarian glandular products. I have heard reports of each of these working for some dogs.
Update: I was asked about the use of phytoestrogens to treat spay incontinence. Genesis Resources Canine Incontinence Support (mentioned above) uses phytoestrogens, and there are other phytoestrogen products, such as Nature's Herbs Phyto Estrogen Power. I found two anecdotal reports of people who used soy, which contains isoflavones, to treat incontinence (see Soy Supplements Helped Our Dog with Spay Incontinence and Cellulite, Estrogen, and Female Incontinence). Ground flaxseeds provide lignans that are also a source of phytoestrogens. The lignans are in the hulls, so ground flaxseed will be higher in lignans than even high-lignan flaxseed oil, but ground flaxseed must be used soon after grinding for best results (keep any unused portion refrigerated). There are also lignan extracts you could try. I would be interested to hear results, positive or negative, if anyone tries these products (contact info below).
Beth Teffner of Ohio has a four-year-old Doberman, Inga, who was rescued from a puppy mill. Inga has spay incontinence, which Beth has been treating successfully with corn silk. “We first tried giving her Proin, but it made her cranky," says Teffner. "Inga now gets three capsules of corn silk (425 mg) a day, two in the morning and one in the evening, opened and sprinkled over her food. She leaks only when extremely tired. She is dry 90 to 95 percent of the time.”
Teas made from corn silk (and other herbs) may be more effective than capsules. To make an herbal tea, add 1 tablespoon of fresh or dried herb per 2 cups of boiling water. Give 1 teaspoon of strong tea per 20 pounds of body weight, twice a day. Other herbs that can help with incontinence include raspberry leaf, horsetail, saw palmetto, nettle root, couch grass, uva ursi, agrimony, marshmallow, and plantain.
Glycerin tinctures (also known as glycerites) containing these herbs in any combination are another alternative. Give 12 to 20 drops of glycerite per 20 pounds of body weight, twice a day.
There are also commercial herbal blends made for dogs with incontinence. Products that have worked for some include Azmira’s Kidni Kare, Animals’ Apawthecary’s Tinkle Tonic, Vetri-Science Bladder Strength for Dogs, and Nutri-Vet Bladder Control Chewables (see Resources below).
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) also offers herbal combinations for controlling incontinence. Chinese herbs helped Ben, 13-year-old border collie owned by Laura Miller of Lovetteville, VA, after the dog started leaking urine about six months ago. The leaking began with a urinary tract infection, but continued after the infection was gone.
“While Proin controlled the problem, it seemed to make him grouchy to the point where the other dogs in the house were avoiding him," says Miller. "With the help of a veterinarian who practices both conventional and holistic medicine, we were able to switch him to a Chinese herbal combination that has been as effective as the Proin, without the grumpiness.”
The formula her vet prescribed is called Sang Piao Xiao San - Mantis Formula 524, from Sun Ten. (Note: Chinese herbal formulas are typically custom-prescribed for the unique needs of the patient, rather than indicated for specific symptoms. Your veterinary TCM practitioner may prescribe a different Chinese herbal formula for the same condition in your dog.)
“Maizey has eaten a raw, grain-free diet since 12 weeks of age. The only grains she ever got were in my home-baked cookies made from liver and organic wheat. I stopped giving the cookies, in an effort to help with a yeasty ear problem. To my utter surprise and delight, not only did her ears clear up, but her dribbles also stopped. I did not believe it. Just to be sure, I again gave her one cookie a day for two weeks, and she began dribbling again.” Maizey has been off all grains, and free of incontinence, for ten years now.
Judi Rothenberg’s Doberman Lucy is another dog who has responded to the elimination of grains from her diet. Although DES was effective in controlling Lucy’s spay incontinence, Judi preferred something more natural. “I give Lucy corn silk (1/4 teaspoon twice a day), but removing grains from her diet helped the most. As long as I remember not to give her treats with grains in them, Lucy no longer needs the DES.”
Sometimes, just a homemade diet can help, even if it includes grains. Judy Coates of Pennsylvania had two male beagles, Guillaume and Darwin, who were neutered in April 2003, when Guillaume was 10 and Darwin was 9 years old.
“At the time of neutering they were eating a high quality dry food,” Judy says. “After a few months they started leaking while they were relaxed or sleeping. I increased the amount of fresh food I added to their kibble, and eventually began feeding all home-cooked meals at the beginning of 2005. As soon as they started to get fresh food, their water intake dropped and the leaking went away. Even now, with Guillaume testing positive for Cushing’s and drinking more water than he did, he still has no problem with leaking.”
When preparing homemade diets, keep in mind that certain vegetables, such as parsley and celery, have diuretic properties and may increase leaking.
Maggie is a 10-year-old Vizsla owned by Maisie Griffiths in Canberra, Australia, and fed a raw, grain-free diet. “Maggie began to have some episodes of incontinence about a year ago, just dribbles that only occurred in her sleep,” says Griffiths.
“The leaking increased at the same time that she began to show more obvious signs of the effects of her spondylosis. My vet is also a chiropractor; we began to give Maggie chiropractic treatments. The urine dribbles turned into floods for a few days following each treatment and then returned to dribbles. We continued the treatments as her movement was improving. Gradually, the incontinence following each treatment completely disappeared, along with the original dribbles.” Griffiths reports that Maggie now moves better than she did two years ago and has no incontinence at all.
Homeopathic remedies, both individual and combinations, have helped many dogs. Jo Wells of Euless, Texas, has a 10-year-old Rottweiler mix also named Maggie who was diagnosed with spay incontinence about a year ago.
Wells says, “We tried corn silk capsules with no success. The homeopathic formula Leaks No More from Homeopet worked for us, but I quit using it because of the expense. It comes in such a small bottle and using it three times a day it only lasted about ten days for a large dog. I switched to Herbasaurs Bedwetting homeopathic formula made for children. It has worked for us and a bottle lasts me for three to four weeks. I just put it in her food and she scarfs it right down.”
Other homeopathic remedies recommended for dogs with incontinence are Sepia, Solidago (goldenrod), and Hyland’s EnurAid.
Maggie required surgery to correct this defect. The surgery was successful and allowed Maggie to urinate normally, but she continued to have problems with dribbling during any kind of stress. “The specialist had told me at the time of surgery that it is common for dogs with an ectopic ureter to not be fully continent post-surgery. Within a couple of months after surgery, Mags was greatly improved but she would still leak from time to time, and the leaking made her susceptible to bladder infections.”
Fenton tried DES, which didn’t help at all, but she had success using Proin. She preferred more natural methods, however. “I used a number of supplements, including vitamin C, cranberry capsules (which help prevent bladder infections), and Animals’ Apawthecary's Tinkle Tonic. I would make my own tincture using corn silk in an alcohol (brandy) base and I added uva ursi. I tried adding corn silk directly to her food, but that did nothing. Switching to a raw, grain-free diet helped quite a bit. Mags was nine years old when I made the switch.”
This approach worked most of the time, but under stress, the dribbles would return. “When she would drip, I would give her PPA, twice a day, which I usually had to do only for about three days at a time. I also used PPA as a preventative when I knew there was going to be stress and thus a high likelihood that she would drip.”
Cushing’s disease (hyperadrenocorticism), and more, can lead to incontinence. Most of these can be ruled out by blood tests. Certain drugs can also cause increased water intake.
Kathy Moffett of Le Roy, Illinois, has a Brittany Spaniel named Abby who began having major incontinence issues associated with drinking lots of water at age 11. “Abby turned out to have a rare condition called diabetes insipidus,” Moffett explains. “The only symptoms of this condition are drinking lots of water and increased urination, including problems with incontinence.”
The treatment for DI involves injections twice a day with desmopressin, which controls the excess drinking and also the incontinence. (Note that there is no relationship between diabetes insipidus and the more common diabetes mellitus.)
My own dog Nattie developed some incontinence when she was diagnosed with kidney disease and put on subcutaneous fluids. I did not give her medication for this, but solved the problem by getting up during the night to let her out one extra time, and by using washable waterproof pads under her bedding to protect the beds and furniture.
I found the mattress pads and liners made for children’s beds to be the most cost-effective and reliable way to keep dog beds and other places she liked to sleep dry. You can also find waterproof liners and pads made for dogs and dog beds in pet supply stores and catalogs. Bath mats are another option. Diaper garments made for both female and male dogs can also be purchased.
Incontinence has also been known to develop following corticosteroid treatment. Steroids such as prednisone cause excess drinking, which may lead to temporary incontinence, but sometimes the incontinence continues even after the steroids are stopped.
Steroids also suppress the immune system, which can lead to increased risk of urinary tract infections. In addition, steroids can push a dog with a tendency toward diabetes into exhibiting symptoms. It makes sense to have a urinalysis done if your dog develops incontinence following the use of prednisone.
Dawn Lange of Duluth, Minnesota, has a retired racing greyhound named Sly who experienced problems following the use of prednisone.
“Sly’s incontinence started at about eight years old, almost immediately after receiving multiple steroid injections for pannus.” says Lange. “It took about six months before the incontinence gradually stopped. None of the treatments that are used for spay incontinence worked. We chose to diaper her during the problem period, using Female Pet Bloomers from Drs. Foster & Smith, with a maxipad inside.”
One older procedure for female dogs, colposuspension, surgically tacks the vagina to the belly wall, compressing the urethra.
Colposuspension surgery has been shown to be effective in curing incontinence in 40 to 55 percent of dogs initially, though many relapse within the first year. Most dogs show improvement, which is often increased when medications are added back in. Male dogs can have a similar procedure called a cystourethropexy.
Collagen injections (performed under anesthesia) into the area around the urethra offer a newer and more effective surgical method for controlling incontinence in female dogs. Studies show these injections to be completely successful in up to 75 percent of the dogs who receive them, with most of the rest improved and many of those responding to the use of PPA after surgery when they did not before.
The major drawback to this approach is cost, which can run more than $1000 -- and the treatment may have to be repeated, as the body may remove or flatten the collagen over time. Retreatment with collagen is usually easier and may be less expensive. The average duration of effectiveness was 17 months in one study, though the effects can last more than five years. It has few side effects, usually only transient problems with urination immediately after surgery in a small percentage of dogs. There is a current study of this procedure being done at Purdue University.
Beth Teffner is involved with Hand Me Down Dobes, a rescue group in Columbus, Ohio, that recently took in a two-year-old Doberman named Reese. Surrendered by her owner due to incontinence, Reese would leak urine while standing and walking around, even immediately after urinating. Exploratory surgery did not find a cause.
The group contacted Ohio State, where the collagen injection procedure is being studied on Dobermans. “Fortunately, our group had an angel who donated money, and Reese has had the injections. She did not need additional surgery and is leak-free,” Teffner says. “She is now in a foster home waiting to be adopted.” (If you can help, contact Hand Me Down Dobes at 614-470-2851 or handmedowndobes.org.)
UPDATE 10/26/2009: VIN reports that the company that was making collagen will no longer sell it to new veterinary clients, meaning this option may soon be no longer available. However, they also report that Christopher Adin, DVM, Dip ACVS, an assistant professor of Small Animal Surgery at Ohio State University, has recently introduced a new surgical procedure that works like a lap band for the bladder.
UPDATE 6/4/2010: Avalon Medical advised me that a new injectable collagen product for veterinary use will be available in the third quarter of this year. Cost will be $250 for the system compared to $500 charged by the company that used to make it. Contact the company for more information.
UPDATE 4/30/2011: A recent veterinary article talks about a new type of surgery for intractable incontinence. "Hydraulic urethral occlusion empoys a silicon cuff around the proximal urethra. The cuff is filled with variable amounts of saline to provide mechanical obstruction to urine flow through the urethra. The amount of saline in the cuff, and the degree of resistance to flow, is adjusted using a subcutaneous injection port placed on the inner thigh." The article concludes that "Hydraulic urethral occluders appear to offer a new and highly success option for the control of urinary incontinence in the dog. The technique offers long-term control of incontinence with a single procedure. No medical management is necessary. The occluders appear to offer a superior surgical option to previous methods for the control of incontinence." See Outcome of Five Dogs that had a Hydraulic Urethral Occluder implanted for the Control of Urinary Incontinence for details. For more information, contact:
- Petcare Veterinary Hospital in Santa Rosa, California, Dr. Clare R. Gregory: 707-579-5900
- VCA All-Care Animal Referral Center in Fountain Valley, California: 714-963-0909, 800-944-PETS
In one small pilot study, seven of 11 dogs treated this way once or twice were cured for periods ranging from two months to two years, with all but one of the remaining dogs becoming continent when PPA was added. This treatment is still experimental and has not yet been approved, though GnRH is used with dogs for other purposes involving reproduction.
When natural treatments and traditional medications do not work, look for other possible causes, and if needed, consider surgical options. Almost all dogs with incontinence can be successfully treated with persistence.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) available from Wedgewood Pharmacy
- PeeKeeper Escape-Proof Dog Diaper
- Doctors Foster & Smith (diapers, pads, etc.)
- KV Vet Supply (Proin, diaper garments and pads, Leaks No More)
- Poochie Pants cute diaper garments for male and female dogs of all sizes
- Waterproof mattress pads
- GoodNites Disposable Bed Mats One person reported, "They are peel and stick. The adhesive releases easily from the plastic tray. These work really well for me as I use a plastic crate tray enclosed by xpen so she can move around. She drags her feet now and the regular pads dont stay in place. These do and are super adsorbent and urine is adsorbed faster than on most pee pads. They come 10 to a bag for about $10." Available from Amazon, Walmart, Target, and elsewhere.
- Palace Bedding offers thick pile to wick away moisture (you may still need to use a waterproof pad underneath). Also available at Scout's House. See Convalescent Support for Your Dog for more information from someone who used this and other aids to help her dog.
- EZWhelp offers both new and used washable underpads in different sizes.
- Petpads are "gently used." Composed of water-resistant material on one side and absorbent on the other.
- PersonallyPaws offers washable leakproof pads, belly bands, and other items.
- Pooch Pads
- Sam's Club sells disposable pads such as Member's Mark® Comfort Shape® Underpads. and
- Disposable Underpads (also available in smaller size).
- Pet Peepers Disposable Pet Diapers -- this site offers a variety of different diaper garments, including some that are washable.
- Ultimate Vet Fleece -- extremely soft and thick, this fleece lets liquids run thru so dog stays dry (waterproof liner of some kind needed underneath). The "super deluxe" is so thick that a 4x5 sheet will not fit in a regular-size washing machine.
- "Dry as a Bone" Incontinent Bed
- Tutorial: Doggie Belly Band instructions for making your own belly bands (sewing required)
- How to Sew Pattern for Dog Belly Bands
- Tinkle Trousers dog diapers for both male and female dogs
Canine Urinary Incontinence Study at Purdue University (cannot find information on this study as of 2010, but Larry Adams, DVM, lists "Minimally invasive urology procedures including shock wave lithotripsy, laser lithotripsy, laser ablation of ectopic ureters, and periurethral collagen injection for treatment of urinary incontinence" under Areas of Interest.
Owner information sheet regarding urinary incontinence
Includes this dosage for PPA: "1.1-1.5 mg/kg orally every 8 hours initially, and then decreasing the frequency to every 12 hours to the minimum effective dose." That would translate to 25 to 34 mg two or three times a day for a 50 lb dog. Do not exceed the recommended dosage, as overdose can be very dangerous. If PPA does not work to control your dog's incontinence, combine it with other treatments rather than increasing the dosage.
Correcting polyuric disorder could put incontinence on hold by Dr. Johnny Hoskins
Urinary Incontinence in Dogs - Diagnosis and Treatment
Dennis J. Chew, DVM, DACVIM and Stephen P. DiBartola, DVM, DACVIM
College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
Surgical techniques for urinary incontinence
Catriona MacPhail, DVM, PhD, BA, DACVS
Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in spayed bitches: new insights into the pathophysiology and options for treatment (see PDF page 73, journal page 187)